Milling & Grain


Milling Techniques

Many elements of flour quality are determined at the mill. A slower more gentle extraction of flour from wheat is desirable.Tempering of wheat. (conditioning) the addition of water, followed by a rest period.

The objective is to toughen the bran and mellow the endosperm. Properly prepared wheat allows for clean separation of bran and lowers starch damage. Historically most U.S. mills temper between 7-10 hours. Many European mills temper 24 hours or longer. Many U.S. mills are looking at the flour quality benefits of extending temper time.

Roller milling, allows for a range of selective grinding, reducing, sifting..
There are several different magnitudes of stress imposed on flour that will vary according to grinding conditions: ( rate of flow to rolls, the roll velocities, ratio of speed of both fast and slow rolls, type and condition of roll surface ).

Contact your miller about how your flour is produced and what methods can be implemented to mill flour with the least amount of heat and stress.

Damaged starch- the mechanical action of rolls during milling damages some of the starch granules in flour. The degree of this damage will effect water, enzymes, & beta amylase. The penetration of the damaged starch causes:


Grain - Identity Preserved Flour

Identity Preserved Flour is flour milled from wheat of known origin. The Wheat is kept separate from a mills continually changing wheat supply. The known identity of the wheat is preserved.

A customer of flour milled from identity preserved wheat should know how long the wheat will last in a given crop year.

The varieties of wheat in the case of Cook Natural Products, is wheat that is selected for properties desired by artisan bakers.

Wheat varieties are chosen for gluten extensibility, strength, color and flavor. The independent lab at the California Wheat Commission does the majority of testing for Cook Natural Products.

Test Includes



Typically customers of Cook Natural Products' "Express" Flour, "Hico" Flour, "Organic All Winter" and "Organic All Spring" Flour know what wheat varieties make up the flour, where they are grown, who grew them and how long they will last before a new wheat mix is introduced.

Identity preserved Flour allows for bakers to take some control over the performance of their bake. There are no surprises or mysteries in the bag.


Gluten Quality

Historically, in the Grain and Milling Industry, the farmer is rewarded for a gross protein quantity.  Elevators and Mills pay extra for a gross protein quantity.  No one really measures for the protein quality.  Not all protein is created equal.  Some protein, during particular growing conditions will have a personality that is "tough" and "bucky", while other proteins will yield more "mellow" and extensible dough. We use the Alveograph test on every lot of wheat available to us.  This gives us a clue as to the personality we can expect from the flour inside. Once milled, we test the flour again and provide you the results on our lot analysis sheets. the lot index or use the lot search.